Scrophulariaceae - figwort family
Research Scientist and Research Institute Director (retired) and presently Honorary Research Associate, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada,
Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6, Canada
Awarded the George Lawson Medal by the Canadian Botanical Association in 2006.
Awarded the Faculty of Macdonald, McGill University, Most Distinguished Alumni Award on October 18, 2014.
Read his biography "The Real Weed Man" available in print and ebook.
Chaenorrhinum minus (L.) Lange, dwarf snapdragon, chénorhinum mineur
It is an annual herb, 4 to 12 inches (10 to 30 cm) high, with a slender taproot, and that reproduces only by seeds. The period from germination to seed production is usually very short. Flowers are light blue to purple, small, to ¼ inch (6 mm) long. It was introduced to this Continent from Europe, and is now locally common in poor soils along railroads and roadsides, near buildings, and in waste areas. It is not competitive with tall vegetation. It does colonize and help to stabilize some sterile soils. However, it is a troublesome weed under some conditions; e.g., some strawberry fields.
Linaria dalmatica (L.) Mill., Dalmation toadflax, linaire à feuilles larges
A vigorous perennial up to 4 ft. (12 dm.) tall with large flowers to 1.5 inches (3.8 cm.) long, broad waxy leaves and wingless seeds. It is a native plant of Europe that was introduced into North America as an ornamental in the 1800s. It is now an invasive weed of fields, pastures, roadsides, waste places and rangelands of the Midwest and western parts of the northern United States and Canada. It is a rare plant in the east.
Linaria vulgaris Mill., yellow toadflax, linaire vulgaire
Perennial, spreading by seeds and underground roots; allogamous; flowering stems 6 inches to 2 feet (15 cm. to 6 dm.) high; flowers irregular, yellow with a deep orange center; throughout; grasslands, cultivated fields, gardens, roadsides, and waste places; introduced from Europe and Asia.
Verbascum blattaria L., moth mullein, molène blattaire
Biennial, spreading by seeds; plants up to 6 feet (18 dm.) high; flowers yellow, rarely white; southern Ontario, and southward in the United States; old fields, roadsides, and waste places; introduced from Europe.
Verbascum thapsus L., common mullein, grande molène
Biennial, spreading by seeds; autogamous; stems 6 inches to 8 feet (15 cm. to 24 dm.) high; flowers yellow; throughout, but rare in mid-west; pastures, roadsides, and waste places; introduced from Europe.
Veronica serphyllifolia L. (sometimes placed in Plantaginaceae - plantain family), thyme-leaved speedwell, véronique à feuilles de serpolet
A fibrous rooted perennial with prostrate to semi-erect stems up to 12 inches (30) cm. long. Often roots at the nodes and can form a dense mat. Flowers are irregular and mostly whitish-blue with purple stripes. It was introduced here from Europe and is now a weed of short grass, of gardens and vacant lots, and on wet slopes. It occurs in the northern United States and Canada, ranging as far north as Yukon and Alaska. It is uncommon or absent in much of the Midwest.
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